Metroid Dread is full of abilities, secrets, and upgrades to find and collect. These will allow Samus to navigate the different areas of ZDR and overcome enemies and obstacles. One of these upgrades that you will find is the Grapple Beam.
The Grapple Beam can be found in Artaria in the top center of the map. This area is accessed from a save room but you will need the Speed Booster ability to get the Grapple Beam. Head right from the save room and drop down and enter the blast door.
Related: How to Unlock the Wide Beam in Metroid Dread
Drop down again and enter the door covered by a missile shield. In here, you will find a Chozo Statue holding an orb. Destroy the orb and you will unlock the Grapple Beam. You will need to use this newfound ability to escape this room so you had better learn quickly.
The Grapple Beam allows Samus to fire a rope-like beam by holding ZR and pressing Y. Once it has attached to an object, you can push the left stick in the opposite direction to pull the object. You can use it to swing like a spider by jumping with the beam attached. It can also attach to magnetic walls.
For more information on Metroid Dread, check out How to unlock the Phantom Cloak in Metroid Dread and How to defeat Corpius in Metroid Dread on Pro Game Guides.